Corporate laws are the laws that govern the operations of companies which are classed as corporations – ones that are a separate legal entity to the people that run them.
Corporate law is a whole, complex field. It includes issues regarding taxation, employment law, the way the companies are managed, finance, and the rights and responsibilities of the board, shareholders, and their relationship with consumers.
With a limited company, the company itself is an entity which takes on debts, and then if the company were to ever run into financial trouble, it would be that company that had to service the debts. Should the company cease trading, the people managing it would not be liable for the debts as long as they were not found to have mismanaged the corporation.
There are many lawyers that specialise in corporate law, and that focus on issues relating to protecting the interests of businesses. These work in an area separate to criminal law, and deal with their own case studies and precedents.
Corporations work differently in different parts of the world – and in some parts of Europe the status of a company is rather different to that of a company in the United States. Some business owners who are particularly shrewd choose to incorporate in specific countries or even specific states because of the business friendly policies that they have, in particular with regard to taxation. This is something that you should seek legal advice about before doing, because it can be more complex than you think and it would be unfortunate to wind up in financial trouble because of some bad judgement calls. The law is complex enough even for lawyers, let alone for lay people who are trying to understand an area that is so broad and full of jargon.